Russian izba

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Материал опубликован 11 June в группе

Автор публикации: Кирилл Хомяков, ученик 5А класса

A Russian izba.

The Russian izba is a part of Russian culture. The architecture of the Russian izba testifies to the fidelity to centuries–old traditions in the construction of dwellings, and the durability and uniqueness of the structure is its characteristic feature. The layout and interior of the izba have been created over the years. Nowadays, there are not so many traditional Russian houses left, but still in some regions they are still preserved.

WHAT IS A RUSSIAN izba? A Russian izba is a house made of logs, in which the Slavic people have long lived. At that time, the ancestors of Russians were domestic people, so their whole life was spent within the walls of this unique structure. The word “izba" comes from “istba”, which in translation from the Old Slavic language means house or banya. THE HISTORY OF THE CREATION OF THE RUSSIAN izba Until the 10th century, Russian izbas were built only of wood. The foundation of the future housing was the logs of trees, which were partially deepened into the ground to ensure greater reliability and durability of the structure. Then the base of the izba was completed. There were no doors or windows at the base. Instead of doors, there were openings up to 1 meter high. There was a stone fireplace in the room, but since there was also no chimney, all the smoke went out through the entrance hole. Initially, the floors in the room were earthen, but over time they began to be laid with wooden planks. Russian izbas were gradually improved and as a result, the kind of Russian izba that is familiar to many appeared: with windows, a door and a Russian stove.

THE EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR OF THE RUSSIAN izba There was only one room in the Russian izba, which the owners divided into several parts. An obligatory part of the izba was the stove corner, which was separated by a curtain. Recreation areas for men and women were also separated. All the corners in the house were lined up according to the cardinal directions and the most important among them was the east (red), where the family organized an iconostasis. It was the icons that the guests had to pay attention to immediately after entering the izba.

The porch The owners of the izba have always paid more attention to the architecture of the porch. It was carefully thought out, and artistic taste, centuries-old traditions and ingenuity were the main components in the construction. It was the porch that connected the izba to the street and was open to all guests and passers-by. Traditionally, the whole family and neighbors gathered on the porch in the evenings, where they sang songs and danced.

The canopy A canopy is a room that was built in order to separate the living area from the street and keep the house warm. To separate the entrance hall and the heated area, a high threshold was built, which prevented the penetration of cold air into the house. The canopy was also used to store necessary things and food.

Russian oven The whole life of the Russian izba revolved around the stove. The stove was used not only for cooking and heating, but also for sleeping on it and washing in it. Niches for various utensils were installed in the walls of the furnace. In a traditional Russian izba, the stove was the main element of the house, it was placed in the main area, to the right or left of the entrance. Since ancient times, many beliefs have been associated with the oven. People believed that a brownie lived on the stove. Also, garbage was never taken out of the house, as a rule, it was burned in the oven, believing that this way all the energy remains in the house and this helps to increase prosperity in the family.

Furnace corner The stove corner, or as it is also called “babi kut”, is an important space in the female destiny, which performed a number of functions. It was separated by a curtain, sometimes by a wooden partition. The corner was used to store all kitchen utensils. In the stove corner, the housewives washed and dried things, cooked food, treated children and wondered. The girls were waiting for the groom on the wedding day. Here, women gave birth to children and fed them, hiding behind a curtain from prying eyes. In those days, almost every woman was engaged in needlework, so the most convenient place for privacy was the stove corner. It was strictly forbidden for men to enter here, even from their own family, and even more so, the arrival of a strange man behind the curtain in the stove corner was considered a great insult to all the owners of the house. Male angle (conic) The men's corner was always to the right of the entrance. There was a wide bench in this place, which was fenced on both sides with wooden planks. The boards were cut in the shape of a horse's head, so the male corner got its second name – conic. Under the bench, the men kept their tools and other items that were needed for construction and other men's work. In koneke, men repaired shoes and kitchen utensils, as well as wove baskets from vines. All the guests who came to the hosts for a short time could sit on the bench in the men's corner. And most importantly, the man slept and rested here.

The red corner The red corner is considered sacred, the brightest and most important place in the Russian izba. The corner was always kept completely clean, icons and embroidered towels (towels) were necessarily hung here. The most important icons were considered to be the icons of the Virgin and the Savior. Freshly baked bread was always kept under icons and towels. A large table was always placed in the red corner and food was taken. Arriving in a Russian village today, you will notice that a large number of houses are very similar. They are the end result of the development of a traditional Russian izba, but despite their similarity, each house still remains unique because of its individual design.

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