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Украина, ДНР, город Донецк
Материал размещён в группе «Наши интересные уроки по английскому языку»
Исследовательская работа «Слова - гибриды в английском языке»
в формате MS WORD (*.DOC)
Министерство образования и науки
Донецкой Народной Республики
Учреждение дополнительного образования
«Донецкая Республиканская Малая Академия Наук учащейся молодежи»
Секция: английский язык
Слова – гибриды в английском языке
Концур Анастасия Александровна
ученица 11 - А класса
«Школа № 78 города Донецка»
Полянская Оксана Николаевна,
учитель английского языка
«Школа № 78 города Донецка»
Донецк - 2017
II. The main part……………………………………………………………………………4
1. English vocabulary as a system………………………………………………………….4
4. Portmanteau word………………………………………………………………………..8
5. List of portmanteaux……………………………………………………………………..9
The object of the research is Portmanteau words of modern English language. The English language is one of the richest in the world, it have one of the finest literatures. Its basis is Anglo-Saxon. A few Celtic and Danish words came very early. An important development was made when the Norman Conquest provided it with a new set of words. With the Renaissance arrived a great influx of words of Latin and Greek derivation. Other acquisitions are associated with the later history.
English lexicology (from Greek lexis 'word' and logos 'learning') is the part of linguistics dealing with the vocabulary of a language and the properties of words as the main units of language.
The lexicology of present-day English, therefore, although having aims of its own different from those of its historical counter-part, cannot be divorced from the latter. The lexical system of every epoch contains productive elements typical of this particular period, others that are obsolete and dropping out of usage, and, finally some new phenomena, significant marks of new trends for the epochs to come. The present of a system is an abstraction which in some points can facilitate linguistic study; the actual system of the language is in a state of constant change. Much yet remains to be done in elucidating the complex problems and principles of this process before a complete and accurate picture of the English vocabulary as a system can be presented, with specific peculiarities of its own, constantly developing and conditioned by the history of the English people and the structure of the language.
The topic of the given research is actual and interesting because the process continues: almost every day new words are coined in modern English.
This research is most likely presented for those who deals with modern linguistics.
The structure of the research includes introduction, the main part, the conclusions and Bibliography.
The total volume of the research is 19 pages.
ІІ THE MAIN PART
It has been claimed by different authors that, in contrast to grammar, the vocabulary of a language is not systematic but chaotic. In the light of recent investigations in linguistic theory, however, we are now in a position to bring some order into this “chaos”. We call vocabulary systematic because the sum total of the words in it may be considered as a structured set of interdependent and interrelated elements. A set is defined in the abstract set theory as a collection of definite distinct objects to be conceived as a whole. A set is said to be a collection of distinct elements, because a certain object may be distinguished from the other elements in a set, but there is no possibility of its repeated appearance. The elements are also said to be definite because with respect to any of them it should be definite whether it belongs to a given set or not. A set is called structured when the number of its elements is smaller than the number of rules according to which these elements may be constructed. A set is given either by indicating, i. e. listing, all its elements, or by stating the characteristic property of its elements. For example the closed set of English articles may be defined as comprising the elements the, a/an and zero. The set of English compounds is an infinite (open) set containing all the words consisting of at least two stems which occur in the language as free forms.
Even though its elements are concrete and can be observed as such, a set is always abstract, and so is the vocabulary system (or, as Academician V.V. Vinogradov has called it, the lexico - semantic system). The interdependence in this system results from a complex interaction of words in their lexical meanings and the grammatical features of the language. V. V. Vinogradov includes in this term both the sum total of words and expressions the derivational and functional patterns of word forms and word - groups, semantic groupings and relationships between words. The interaction of various levels in the language system is illustrated in English by the following examples: the widespread development of homonyms and polysemy, the loss of motivation, the great number of generic words and the very limited autonomy of English words as compared with Russian words, all closely connected with the monomorphemic analytical character of the English language and the scarcity of morphological means. All their turn result, partly at least, from leveling and loss of endings, processes undoubtedly connected with the reduction of vowels in unstressed syllables. In this book the relations between these elements and the regularity of these relations are shown in terms of sets, elements of sets, oppositions, differences, equivalences and positional values. Equivalence should be clearly distinguished from equality or identity. Equivalence is the relation between two elements based on the common feature due to which they belong to the same set.
Each of the tens of thousands of lexical units constituting the vocabulary possesses a certain number of characteristic features variously combined and making each separate word into a special sign different from all other words. We use the term lexical distinctive feature for features capable of distinguishing a word in morphological form or meaning from an otherwise similar word or variant.
Distinctive features and oppositions take different specific manifestations on different linguistic levels: in phonology, morphology, and lexicology. We deal with lexical distinctive features and lexical oppositions.
A lexical opposition is defined as the relationship of partial difference between two partially similar words. The features that the two contrasted words possess in common form the basis of a lexical opposition. They may also form the basis of equivalence due to which these words, as it has been stated above, may be referred to the same subset. The features must be chosen so as to show unmistakably whether any element we may come across belongs to the given set or not. They must also be important, so that the presence of a distinctive feature must allow the prediction of secondary features connected with it. The feature may be constant or variable, or the basis may be formed by a combination of constant and variable features, as in the case of the following group: pool, pong, lake, sea, ocean with its variation for size. Without a basis of similarity no comparison and no opposition are possible.
When the basis is not limited to the members of one opposition but comprises other elements of the system, we call the opposition poly dimensional. The presence of the same basis or combination of features in several words permits their grouping into a subset of the vocabulary system. We shall therefore use the term lexical group to denote a subset of the vocabulary, all the elements of which possess a given distinctive feature. Every element of a subset of the vocabulary is also an element of the vocabulary as a whole.
The vocabulary does not remain the same but changes constantly. New notions come into being, requiring new words that denote them drop out of the language. Sometimes a new name is introduced for a thing or notion that continues to exist, and the older name ceases to be used. The number of words in a language is therefore not constant; the increase, as a rule, more than makes up for the leak-out.
New words and expressions or neologisms are created for new things irrespective of their scale of importance. They may be all - important and come social relationships, such as a new form of state, e. g. People’s Republic, something threatening the very existence of humanity, like nuclear war. Or again they may be quite insignificant and short - lived, like fashions in dancing, clothing, hair - do or footwear, as the already outdated jitterbug and pony - tail. In every case either the old words are appropriately changed in meaning or new words are borrowed, or more often coined out of the existing language material according to the patterns and ways productive in the language at a given stage of its development.
Thus, a neologism is any word or word equivalent, formed according to the productive structural patterns or borrowed from another language and felt by the speakers as something new.
The intense development of science and industry has called forth the invention and introduction of an immense number of new words and changed the meanings of old ones: allergic, computer, isotope, feedback, nuclear, penicillin, tape-recorder, supermarket and many more.
In the ever -changing field political life and affairs new words are constantly coined. In this connection it is interesting to pay attention to the process to coining political euphemisms. American newspapers do not discuss unemployment, they prefer the down toned expressions: unused or underused manpower. The problem of starvation is the problem of adequate nourishment, and the poor are only the underprivileged.
A few examples of neologisms showing the patterns according to which they are formed may be of interest. Automation ‘automatic control of production’ is irregularly formed from the stem automatic -with the help of the very productive suffix -tion. The corresponding verb to automate is a back - formation, e. g. to re- equip in the most modern and automated fashion. Re- is one of the most productive prefixes, the others are anti-, de-, the semi - affix self- and many more: anti-flash ‘serving to protect the eyes’ or the jocular anti-everything: She [the nurse] was anti- everything, except such of the patients who were good for a gossip. (M. Dickens) Cf. deglamorize ‘to make less attractive’ rejuvenate ‘to make young again’, rehouse ‘to improve housing conditions’.
Word-formation is the process of creating new words from the material available in the word-stock according to certain structural and semantic patterns specific for the given language.
Various types of word-formation in Modem English possess different degrees of productivity. Some of them are highly-productive (affixation, conversion and similar phenomena (
Among these formations there is a specific group that has attracted special attention of several authors and was eve given several different names: blends, blendings, fusions or portmanteau words. The process of formation is also called telescoping because the words seem to slide into one another like sections of atelescope.
Compare also snob which may have been originally an abbreviation for sine nobilitate, written after a name in the registry of fashionable English schools to indicate that the bearer of the name did not belong to nobility. One of the most recent examples is bit, the fundamental unit of information, which is short for binary digit.
The analysis into immediate constituents is helpful in so far as it permits the definition of a blend as a word with the first constituent represented by a stem whose final part may be missing, and the second constituent by a stem of which the initial part is missing. The second constituent when used in a series of similar blends may turn into a suffix. A new suffix -on is, for instance, well under way in such terms as nylon, rayon, silon, formed from the final element of cotton.
Depending upon the prototype phrases with which they can be correlated two types of blends can be distinguished. One may be termed additive, the second restrictive. Both involve the sliding together not only of sound of meaning as well. Yet the semantic relations which are at work are different. The first, i. e. additive type is transformable into a phrase consisting of the respective complete stems combined by the conjunction and:
The restrictive type is transformable into an attributive phrase, where the first element serves as modifier of the second: cine (matographic pano) rama > cinerama. Other examples are: positron < positive electron; telecast television broadcast. An interesting variation of the same type is presented by cases of superposition, formed by pairs of words having similar clusters of sounds, which seem to provoke blending,
Curtailed words arise in various types of colloquial speech, and have for the most part a pronounced stylistic colouring as long as their connection with the prototype is alive, so that they remain synonyms. When the connection with the prototype is lost, the curtailed word may become stylistically neutral:
“Portmanteau”, from Middle French “porter” (to carry) and “manteau” (a coat or cover), formerly referred to a large traveling bag or suitcase with two compartments, hence the linguistic idea of fusing two words and their meanings into one. “Portmanteau” is rarely used to refer to a suitcase in English any more, since that type of a suitcase has fallen into disuse. In French, the word has the different meaning of “coat hanger”, and sometimes “coat rack”, and is spelled “porte-manteau”. The French word for “Portmanteau” is “mot valise”, which translates literally as “suitcase word”.
A portmanteau (plural: portmanteaux) or blend is a word which fuses two or more words or parts of words to give a combined meaning. A folk usage of portmanteau refers to a word formed by combining both sounds and meaning from two or more words (e.g. “spork” from “spoon/fork”, “animatronics” from “animation” and “electronics”, or “blaxploitation” from “black” and “exploitation”). Typically, portmanteau words are neologisms. One of the most well-known examples is cyborg, a term which is commonly used to refer to a cybernetic organism.
This usage of “portmanteau” has been eliminated in linguistics. It has a certain historical currency, but has been superseded by the word “blend” in modem linguistic usage. Words such as those cited below and other words as “motel”, “smog”, “brunch“, etc are now called “blends”. Morphemes which have more than one meaning are still called portmanteaux.
It may be noted that, as some portmanteaux enter the lexicon as words in their own right, a double portmanteau becomes possible: for example, Vog is a portmanteau of Volcanic and Smog, while Smog is itself a portmanteau of Smoke and Fog.
This is a partial list of hybrid words, or “blends” - words formed by combining two pre-existing words - in the English language. Most portmanteau words combine the prefix of one word with the suffix of the other. This process sometimes creates derivative meanings for the prefix and suffix. Some portmanteaux, however, combine the prefixes from both words (e.g., the portmanteau-word, “modem” - from modulator and demodulator).
Advertecture from advertising and architecture;
aerobatics from aerial and acrobatics; affluenza from affluence and influenza;
alphabet from alpha and beta, the first two letters of the Greek alphabet;
anacronym from anachronism and acronym;
arcology from architecture and ecology,
arfe from art and café] asseasm from ass and orgasm;
automatical from automatic and magical;
avgas from aviation and gasoline;
bac/cronym from back and acronym;
banoffee from banana and toffee;
bedaffl from bedazzle and baffle;
beefalo from beef and buffalo;
beutifantistarific from beautiful, fantastic, and terrific;
dionicle from biological, and chronicle;
bioterrorism from biological and terrorism;
Blackanese from black and Japanese or Chinese;
/b/lackup from /b/, black and backup;
blaxican from black and Mexican;
blaxyloitation from black and exploitation;
bleen from blue and green, coined by Nelson Goodman to illustrate Goodman’s paradox;
dlipster from black and hipster;
blorph from blend and morph, a visual effects technique (coined by Ken Ralston/Sony Pictures Imageworks);
bodacious from bold and audacious;
boxercise from boxing and exercise;
brunch from breakfast and lunch;
Californication from California and fornication;
camcorder from camera and recorder;
caplet from capsule and tablet;
carboloy from carbon and alloy;
Chunnel from Channel and tunnel;
chillaxins from chilling and relaxing;
Chinslish from Chinese and English;
chortle from chuckle and snort, coined by Lewis Carroll;
Clintwood from Clinton and Eastwood, the actor and director himself, coined by Clint wood Apartments;
cocacolonization from Coca-Cola and colonization;
cosplay from costume and play;
cremains from cremated and remains;
crisitunity from crisis and opportunity;
crunk from crazy and drunk;
cryptex from cryptology and codex;
cybors from cybernetic and organism;
craptacular from crap and spectacular.
Bancercise from dance and exercise',
deliquid from delicious and liquid;
dramastic from dramatic and drastic,
dramedy from drama and comedy,
ebonies from ebony and phonics',
ecoteur from ecological and saboteur; edutainment from education and entertainment;
electrocution from electricity and execution (originally only referred to execution in an electric chair);
escopetarra from Spanish escopete (shotgun/rifle) and guitarra (guitar); a guitar made from an AK-47;
exercycle from exercise and cycle;
fantabulous from fantastic and fabulous;
farla from fugly and caria;
fanzine from fan and magazine;
Fermalicious from Fergie and delicious;
flexicurity from flexibility and security;
folksonomy from folk and taxonomy;
fpoon from Frosty and spoon;
foon from fork and spoon (see also spork, below); Franglais from français (French for “French”) and anglais (French for “English”, see also - lish, below);
frankenfood from Frankenstein and food, a reference to GMOs;
frankenword from Frankenstein and word, a clunky portmanteau (
frowculation from frown and calculation;
fucktard from fucking and retard;
fugly from fucking and ugly;
fungasm from fun and orgasm;
fucksy from fuck and sexy.
Gaydar from gay and radar;
gaysian from gay and Asian;
gerrymander from Gerry and Salamander;
ginormous from gigantic and enormous;
grue from green and blue (see bleen, above);
guesstimate from guess and estimate;
herpegonosyphillaids from herpes, gonorrhea, syphillis, and AIDS;
herstory from her and history;
humanure from human and manure;
ineptitude from inept and aptitude;
insinnuendo from insinuatel and 'innuendo;
intertw ingle (or intertwangle) from intertwine and intermingle;
Jazzercise from jazz and exercise;
joygasm from joy and orgasm.
Lenovo from legend and novo (new);
liger from lion and tiger cf. tigon;
lish used as a suffix to form many frankenwords meaning foreign varieties of English (see also Franglais, above):
Germlish or Denglish (German);
Japlish (Japanese). Similar are the words Janglish, which involves utilizing English words with a Japanese pronunciation (sometimes called Katakana English), and Which is simply English being inappropriately utilized in the context of Japanese culture.
Masstige, from mass market and prestige, describes prestige items sold in;
mathlete, from maths/math and athelete;
Me Job, from McDonalds and job;
meld possibly from melt or mold and weld;
Melodyssey, from Melodic and Odyssey, from the Australian band Melodyssey;
metrosexual most commonly, from metropolitan and heterosexual;
meowse from cat (meow) and mouse;
mobitone from mobile phone and ring tone;
mockney from mock and Cockney;
moped from motor and pedal;
motel from motor and hotel;
moxibustion from mogusa, the Japanese name for Artemisia vulgaris, and combustion;
mutagen from mutation and from Gk. genesis “origin, creation, generation”.
Oxbridge from Oxford and Cambridgee;
parkade from parking and arcade;
permaculture from permanent agriculture, or permanent culture, coined by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren during the 1970s;
Past afar in from pasta and Rastafarian;
permafrost from permanent and frost;
petrochemical from petroleum and chemical. Because the crucial root oleo has been removed, this word is a portmanteau;
phoneme from phonetics and scheme. This is a way to distinguish sounds of symbols;
pixel from picture and element',
pluot from plum and apricot',
pomosexual from postmodern and sexual',
pornogrgraffiti from pornography and graffiti',
posistor from positive and thermistor', .
prosumer from professional and consumer products at a quality between ‘professional’ products and ‘consumer’ products; typically marketed as such;
Quebexican from Québécois and Mexican a popular term for the language and people of the province of Quebec, Canada;
Positron from positive and electron.
Ramen from ramen and amen',
snecret or sneakret from sneak and secret',
satisficing from Herbert Simon, satisfactory and sufficing',
screenager from screen (as in a computer monitor) and teenager,
sexcapade from sex and escapade',
sexercise from sex and exercise',
sexile from sex and exile',
sexploitation from sex and exploitation',
simulcast from simultaneous and broadcast',
silastic combination silicone and plastic,
short from skirt and short (as in short pants);
slanguage from slang and language',
smacktard from smack (a slang term for gossip or the drug heroin) and retard',
smaze from smoke and haze;
smog from smoke and fog',
snark from snide and remark',
shlam from slam and ham;
spanglish from Spanish and English',
spork from spoon and fort,
sportscast from sports and broadcast',
squircle from square and circle',
stagflation from stagnation and inflation;
starchitect from star and architect',
strunk from stoned and drunk',
Swisslish from Swiss and English',
tangelo from tangerine and pomelo',
tardass from retard and dumbass\
televangelist from television and evangelist',
TGI McChiliBees from TGI Friday’s, McDonald’s, Chili’s, and Applebee’s restaurants;
tofurkey from tofu and turkey;
transceiver from transmitter and receiver;
transponder from transmitter and responder;
trill from true and real;
triticale from triticum and secale (Latin for wheat and rye);
tuber from the/t3h and uber;
turducken from turkey, duck, and chicken, a food dish in which a turkey is itself stuffed with a chicken);
twincest from twin and incest.
ubertastic from uber and fantastic;
Vietnamasian from Vietnamese and Asian, used when someone is unsure if they or someone else are/is from Vietnam or from some other country in Asia.
webzine from web and magazine;
wigger from white and nigger, a Caucasian person who dresses, speaks, etc. in an attempt to emulate the perceived mannerisms of an Afican American youth,
especially those mannerisms based on ethnic stereotype; also spelled whigger or wigga.
Summarizing this research the author would like to point out that the spoken and the written forms of the English language change constantly.
Word-building processes involve not only qualitative but also quantitative changes. As a type of word-building blending has grown more and more productive ever since. This growth becomes especially marked in many European languages in the and of the 20th - at the beginning of the 21st centuries, and it is a matter of common know ledge that this development is particularly intense in English.
Newly portmanteau words appear continuously, this is testified by numerous neologisms.
Many points remain to be elucidated by future patient study and by collecting reliable factual evidence on which more general conclusions may then be built.
Arnold I. V. “The English Word”. Moscow, 1966;
Kveselevich D. I. “Modem English Lexicology in Practice”. Vinnitsa, 2003;
Minaeva L. V. “English Lexicology and Lexicography”. Moscow, 2003;
“Language. Portmanteaux”//Enhlish4V, September 2007;
Schlauch M. “English Language in Modern Times”. Warszawa, 1964.