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Россия, Пермский край, Пермь
Материал размещён в группе «Учителя английского языка»
Научно-исследовательская работа «Sport in our life»
Министерство образования Пермского края
МАОУ «Средняя общеобразовательная школа № 108» г. Перми
"Sport in our life"
ученица 8 «В» класса
МАОУ «СОШ № 108» Весина Валерия
учителя английского языка
МАОУ «СОШ № 108» Худоченко Галина Васильевнва
I. Sport in different countries. .......................................................................................5
1.1. Russian National Sport Games …….……….........................................................5
1.2. National Sport Games in Great Britain ……………..........................................8
1.3. Olympic Games……………………….............................................................11
II. Sport and Healthy Way of Life…………………………………………………13
III. «Health is above wealth»................................................................................14
3.1. The description of the research………..………………………..……….……14
In the Russian language there are a lot of proverbs and sayings that indicate how much can sport “do” and how important it is to keep feet and to be healthy. One of the most famous is “A healthy mind in a healthy body”
Sport is very important in our life. It is popular among young and old people.
Many people do morning exercises, jog in the morning and train themselves in clubs, in different sections and take part in sport competitions.
Other people like sports too, but they only watch sports games, listen to sports news. They prefer reading interesting stories about sportsmen but they don't go in for sports.
Physical education is an important subject at school. Boys and girls play volley-ball and basketball at the lessons. There is the sports ground near a school and schoolchildren go in for sports in the open air.
A lot of different competitions are held at schools, not all pupils take part in them. Participants try to get good results and become winners but the other don’t want to do anything. Do they understand how it is important? In our research paper we are going to find the answer this question.
We think that this topic is relevant because a person who goes in for sports can’t be weak and ill. Physically inactive people get old earlier that those, who find time for sport activity. And of course good health is better than good medicine. A lot of pupils do not attach much attention to sport.
The novelty of our work is to make pupils think about going in for sport and learn about different games.
The object is understanding about importance of sport in our life
The subject is the important meaning of sport and games.
This theme is actual because every year less and less people pay attention to their health. Many of them lead a passive way of life. Students are also busy and they haven’t time for sport. Most people prefer computers or the Internet, some are lazy, and the others do study, and few people go in for sports. That’s why we decided to attract children's attention to different sports in the UK and Russia.
Taking everything into consideration and to find an answer our question the aim is to study different games in countries and among the pupils of 8 th form"V" School №108, their attitude to sport. To achieve the aim it is necessary to do the following tasks:
To study published and Internet resources and find some facts about kinds of sport and games in Russia and in Britain
To give some information about Olympic Games.
To show the importance of doing sport
To conduct the survey among the pupils of the 8th “V” form school №108
To make the conclusion.
We used the following methods:
Studying published and Internet resources
Comparing and analyzing the information.
We think that this research paper will be useful and interesting for pupils because it will allow to pay attention to physical activity that it is directly related to the health of students, which is necessary for the conduct of normal life. And in the process of our work we will be able to improve knowledge of the English language and attract children's attention to different sports in the UK and Russia.
I. Sport in different countries
1.1. Russian National Sport Games
It is known that people choose sport depending on the place they live, climate and sometimes, which is, to my mind, the most correct- to their liking.
Any sport or game has its roots in this or that country, but if people like it, it becomes world wide known and can be included in the programme of the Olympic Games. For example, football, curling and so on.
I’m going to tell you about history, popularity of some of them, their influence on the world sport, amusing things connected with national games and moving quotations and proverbs about sport.
We should understand the difference between the proffesional sport and national popular. The last one is for big groups of people, for popularization not high results and records.
Let’s start with. GORODKI which IS considered to be "RUSSIAN SPORT" in the rest of the world.
Gorodki) is an ancient Russian folk sport whose popularity has spread to Karelia, Finland, Sweden, Ingria, Lithuania, and Estonia. Similar in concept to bowling and also somewhat to horseshoes, the aim of the game is to knock out groups of skittles arranged in various patterns by throwing a bat at them. The skittles, or pins, are called gorodki (literally little cities or townlets), and the square zone in which they are arranged is called the gorod (city).
The game is mentioned in the Old Russian Chronicles and was known in a form that is quite close to the modern one at least from the 17th century, since one of the famous gorodki players was young Peter I of Russia.
The game consists of throwing a bat from a predetermined distance at the gorodki, which are arranged in one of 15 configurations: cannon ( pushka), fork (vilka), star (zvezda), arrow (strela), well (kolodets), crankshaft ( kolenchatyy val), artillery( artilleriya), raquet (raketka), machine gun installation ( pulemyotnoe gnezdo), lobster (rak), watchmen ( chasovye), sickle (serp), shooting gallery ( tir), airplane ( samolet), and letter( pis'mo).
Although traditionally Gorodki is a folk game, it was played by such Russian historical figures as emperor Peter I, Generalissimus Alexander Suvorov, Vladimir Lenin, and Joseph Stalin, as well as cultural luminaries like Ivan Pavlov, Leo Tolstoy, Maksim Gorky, Nikolay Timofeev-Ressovsky, and others.
The game as it existed prior to 1923 had no rules. It was organized into a legitimate sport and its rules codified in 1923, when the first All-Soviet-Union competition was held, and it became an event at the first All-Union Olympiad in 1928.
The game was also shown in an episode of the Soviet animated series Nu, pogodi!, which commemorated the 1980 Olympic Games. ( an episode…)
Russian people can be proud that our President Vladimir Putin and his compatriots from “The Unified Russia” play gorodki.
This game is popular in Perm and Perm krai on the whole. Annual competitions are held in Perm,Lysva,Osa,Berezniki,Kungur.
Another trully Russian is LAPTA.
Lapta is a Russian bat and ball game first known to be played in the 14th century. Mentions of lapta have been found in medieval manuscripts, and balls and bats were found in the 14th-century layers during excavations in Novgorod. It is similar to cricket, brännboll, Rounders, baseball, oină and pesäpallo.
The game is played outside on a field the size of half an association football pitch 20 x 25 sazhens (about 140 x 175 feet). There are 5 people on the field from the defending team, as well as pitcher/server. This pitcher server stands near the batter of the opposing team and hits a ball in the direction of the batter. The team that bats contains six people. Each hitter gets 2 chances to hit the ball over a 10m line. If they succeed at that, the runners can go to an endline at the other end of the pitch. If a player manages to run between the two endpoints, the get 2 points. Games last an hour, split into two equal halves.
The edges of the field were marked with parallel lines, called salo.
The goal of the game is to hit the ball, served by a player of the opposite team, with the bat and send the ball as far as possible, then run across the field to the kon line, and if possible to run back to the gorod line.
The running player should try to avoid being hit with the ball, which is thrown by the opposing team members. For successful runs, the team earns points. A team wins by either getting more points during the scheduled time or by having all its players complete runs.
A description of lapta is given by Aleksandr Kuprin:
This folk game is one of the most interesting and useful games. Lapta requires resourcefulness, deep breathing, faithfulness to your group, attention, dexterity, fast running, good aiming and marksmanship, strong striking hands, and firm eternal confidence that you cannot be defeated. The lazy and cowardly have no place in this game.
According to Russian magazines Little Light and Izvestia, baseball was developed from lapta by 18th century Russian Americans.
The best lapta player at lyceum is Lashova Anastasiya.
This national game is included in the physical training curriculum for pupils 4 -11 classes.The best LAPTA players in Kungur are pupils of school # 13.
Lapta is included in many corparative competitions. For example, Sberbank olympic games – SBERBANKIADA which were held in September 2010 in Sochi.
We cann’t but boast that, in 2010 the winners were the bankirs from Perm krai.
Lapta can be played indoors, outdoors, mini-lapta on a beach, on ice, snow, water and grass.
1.2. National Sport Games in Great Britain
The British people like sport and games. They are called sport-lovers in spite of the fact that some of them neither play games nor even watch them. They only like to speak about sports. Sport plays such a large part in British life that many idioms in the English language have come from the world of sport. For example, “to play the game” means “to be fair” and “that’s not cricket” means “that’s not fair”. Britain invented and developed many of the sports and games, which now are played all over the world. There are different sports societies and clubs in Great Britain. Thousands of people devote their leisure time to outdoor and indoor games, athletics, cycling, mountain climbing, boxing and other sports. Horse-racing, dog-racing and motor-racing are among the most popular sports in Britain. They gather many spectators.
Football is the most popular game in Britain. It is a team game. There are some amateur teams but most of the teams are professional in England. Such teams as Arsenal, Chelsea and Manchester United are well-known all over the world. The Cup finals is one of the most important football matches of the year in England; it is always played at the Wembley stadium, near London, which holds 100,000 spectators. The matches between England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland also excite great interest.
English people like to play cricket. To many Englishmen cricket is both a game and a standard of behavior. They think that summer without cricket isn’t summer. Cricket is the English national sport in summer. If you want to play cricket you must wear white boots, a white shirt and white long trousers. It is played with balls, bats and wickets. Girls play cricket too.
Golf is Scotland's chief contribution to British sport. It is worth nothing here an interesting feature of sporting life in Britain, namely, its frequently close connections with social class of the players or spectators except where a game may be said to be a "national" sport. This is the case with cricket in England which is played and watched by all classes. This is true of golf, which is everywhere in the British Isles a middle-class activity.
Walking and swimming are the two most popular sporting activities, being almost equally undertaken by men and women. Snooker (billiards), pool and darts are the next most popular sports among men.
Aerobics (keep-fit exercises) and yoga. squash and cycling are among the sports where participation has been increasing in recent years. There are several places in Britain associated with a particular kind of sport. One of them is Wimbledon where the All-England Lawn Tennis Championship are held in July (since 1877). The other one is Wembly - a stadium in north London where international football matches, the Cup Finals and other events have taken place since 1923.
Table tennis was first invented in England in about 1880. At first the game had several strange names: Gossima. Whiff Whaff and Ping Pong. It wasn't until 1926 that the International Table Tennis Association was formed with international championships and rules.
Although the game was invented in England British players don't have much chance in international championships. It's the Chinese with their fantastic speed and power who win almost every title. Table tennis looks more like gymnastics when the Chinese start playing, with the ball flying over the net at speeds of over 150 kilometers per hour.
Wimbledon is the center of lawn tennis. Nowadays every summer in June, the British hold the International Tennis Championship at Wimbledon. It’s a great honour for every tennis-player to be the champion of Wimbledon.
Racing There are all kinds of racing in England - horse-racing, motor-car racing, boat-racing, dog-racing, and even races for donkeys. On sports days at school boys and girls run races, and even train for them. There is usually a mile race for older boys, and one who wins it is certainly a good runner. Usually those who run a race go as fast as possible, but there are some races in which everybody has to go very carefully in order to avoid falling. The most famous boat-race in England is between Oxford and Cambridge. It is rowed over a course on the River Thames, and thousands of people go to watch it. The eight rowers in each boat have great struggle, and at the end there is usually only a short distance between the winners and the losers. The University boat-race started in 1820 and has been rowed on the Thames almost every spring since 1836.
Squash began at Harrow School in the mid-nineteenth century, but has since worked its way Into almost every city and district in Britain and throughout Europe.
Squash is one of the fastest games in the world. Two people play in a small confined space surrounded by high walls with no net to keep them apart. The aim is to get to the point at the centre of the court and to stay there. Squash players hope that the game will make them stronger and fitter, but like many sports, squash can be very dangerous. The most obvious danger is the small ball that shoots through the air extremely fast.
Windsurfing was invented in the mid-sixties by two southern Californian surfers, Hoyle Schweitzer and Jim Drake. Surfers need strong rolling waves, and hate days of calm sea. Schweitzer noticed that on days when waves were not high enough to surf, there was often a strong wind and he set about finding a way to use it.
His first experiments involved standing on his surfboard holding out a piece of sail cloth in his hands. Gradually he and Drake refined this idea into a basic design for a sailboard, similar to a surfboard, but holding a mast and a triangular sail which could be tilted and turned in any direction. The windsurfer operates a boom which controls the amount of wind in the sail, for speed and change of direction. Schweitzer immediately went into business designing and making the new sailboards and taking the idea abroad. By mid-seventies, the sport had spread to Holland, Germany and France.
In England great attention is paid to sports in all the schools, colleges and universities. English boys like running, swimming and rowing. Boxing is very popular sport, too, to say nothing of football and cricket. In girls’ schools grass hockey is the most popular game.
1.3. Olympic Games
The world’s greatest international sports games are known as the Olympic Games. The Olympic idea means friendship, fraternity and cooperation among the people of the world. The Olympic movement proves that real peace can be achieved through sport.
The Olympic Games have a very long history. They began in 777 BC in Greece and took place every four years nearly twelve centuries at Olympia. They included many different kinds of sports: running, boxing, wrestling, etc. All the cities in Greece sent their best athletes to Olympia to compete in the Games. For the period of the Games all the wars stopped. So the Olympic Games became the symbol of peace and friendship.
The Games were for men only. Greek women were forbidden not only to participate but also to watch the Olympics.
In 1896 the first modern Olympic Games took place. Of course, the competitions were held in Greece to symbolize the continuation of the centuries-old tradition. The initiator of these Games was a French Baron Pierre de Coubertin.
In 1896 the International Olympic Committee was set up. It is formed by the representatives of all countries which take part in the Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee decides upon the programme of the Games, the number of the participants and the city-host for the Games. Over one hundred and fifty countries are represented in the International Olympic Committee now. Besides, each country has its National Olympic Committee.
Since 1936 the opening ceremony is celebrated by lighting a flame, which is called “The Olympic Flame”. The Olympic emblem is five interlinked rings: blue, yellow, black, green and red. Any national flag contains at least one of these colours.
The ancient Greeks had no winter sports. Only in 1924 the first Winter Olympic Games were held in France. Now they are being held regularly. Summer and Winter Games are held separately. There are always several cities wishing to host the games. The most suitable is selected by the International Committee. After that the city of the Games starts preparations for the competitions, constructs new sports facilities, stadiums, hotels, press centres. Thousands of athletes, journalists and guests come to the Games, and it takes great efforts to arrange everything. There is always an interesting cultural programme of concerts, exhibitions, festivals, etc. for each Games.8
Russia joined the Olympic movement in 1952. Since then it has won a lot of gold, silver and bronze medals. In 1980 Moscow hosted the Twenty-Second Olympic Games. The world knows glorious names of our Olympic champions such as Lydia Skoblikova, Lyudmila Pakhomova and Alexander Gorshkov, Alexey Yagudin.
2004 is an Olympic year. The 28-th Summer Olympiad will take place in Greece in the city of Athens. Russian athletes are getting ready to take part in it. We hope that they will be a success and win many Olympic medals. We are sure that many new names will be added to the list of our Olympic champions.
II. Sport and Healthy Way of Life
To be healthy is very important. You can work, learn and have fun only when you are healthy. Health is the man’s greatest wealth. Of course, you can inherit some problems from your parents. But you can always keep your health if you want to. We are healthy when all parts of our bodies and of our minds work together properly. We cannot be happy unless we feel well.
The ancient Greeks knew the value of good health. They even named one goddess Hygenia, which means goddess of health. The Romans spoke of a health in a proverb:” A healthy mind in a healthy body”. The body does a great deal to take care of itself, but it is possible to help the body to work at its best.
The human body is much more complicated than any machine. No machine can do all the things the body can do. No machine will work for 70 years or more, day and night, requiring only air, water, food and a few simple rules.
The first rule of healthy way of life is to have normal weight, not to be overweight. One of the ways to keep normal weight is to regulate your diet. A person needs vitamins and fibre. One must eat fruit and vegetables every day. Too much food makes you fat. Fat and sugar give a lot of energy. If the energy is not used it becomes fat in your body. If you eat sweet, fat food, even from time to time, you have to exercise regularly. Physical exercises help people keep fit, have a good gait and figure. They also help you lose weight and work out energy.
It is not good to be as thin as a stick, but extra weight can cause serious problems, such as heart problems and diabetics.
There are a lot of advertisements both on TV and in newspapers of different pills and drops which can help you become slim and slender in two weeks. But all those pills cannot work a miracle.
Bad habits, such as smoking, drinking alcohol and using drugs, can ruin your health. Regular sports help people to avoid these bad habits. What exercises are better? Swimming, jogging, basketball, football, table tennis, skiing or morning exercises? It’s upon a person to choose.
As for me. I eat what I want and as much as I want, and I don’t care how much to eat, because I go in for sport every day and use a lot of energy training and competing.
III «Health is above wealth»
3.1. The description of the research
Our research we conduct the following way:
1. We asked the pupils of the 8th the following questions:
Do you like sport?
What kinds of sports are popular in Russia?
What kinds of sports are popular in Britain?
What kind of sport are you fond of?
Is sport important for you?
Do you like sport?
What kinds of sports are popular in Russia?
What kinds of sports are popular in Britain?
What kind of sports are you fond of?
Is sport important for you?
According to our research the majority of pupils like sport. All the students state that football, basketball, tennis, hockey and skiing are popular kinds of sport in Russia. They think that figure skating, polo, gymnastics, golf, baseball, rugby, diving, crickets are popular in Britain. Only 50% of pupils are fond of karate, cyber sport, running, basketball, table tennis, fitness, gymnastics, ARB, swimming and boxing and other 50% - don’t like anything. Also, we are glad that the majority of students consider that sport is an important part for them.
So, we state the problem and tried to offer teens to think more about their health and the way of their life. In our opinion it’s very important to be healthy.
To solve the problem of misunderstanding going in for sport, we offer the pyramids in Egypt. We try to give useful tips.
Modern life becomes more and more technological. People walk little. They prefer to drive cars. They don’t climb up the stairs. It’s much more convenient to use an elevator. Moreover our life is full of stresses that make us weak and nervous. It’s evident that sport is a necessity for the entire society nowadays. First of all, it gives us health. Jogging in the morning helps significantly to avoid the risk of heart attack. For the second, it makes us slim and beautiful. For the most of young people it is even more important to correspond to the fashion trends of beauty than to be healthy. For the third, it gives us pleasure. I believe that every man in the world can find for himself the kind of sport which gives to him an incredible pleasure. For somebody it will be wind-surfing, for the other football, and it can also be chess for the other one. Sport is an important part of just about every society, every country, and every part of our planet. People all over the world are fond of sports and games. Sport makes people healthy, keeps them fit, more organized and better disciplined. It unites people of different classes and nationalities. Sport is very important in our life. It is popular among people of all ages because it helps them to keep fit. There are a lot of enthusiasts in our country who jog in the morning or in the evening and train themselves in clubs and take part in sport competitions. Many people who go in for sports have a lot of advantages in comparison with those who don’t like sport. First of all, all sportsmen become healthy and strong, sport helps them to keep fit, not to catch a cold.
Many people do sports on their personal initiative. They go in for skiing, skating, table tennis, swimming, volleyball, football, bodybuilding, etc. All necessary facilities are provided for them: stadiums, sport grounds, swimming pools, skating rinks, skiing stations, football fields. Sport is paid much attention to in our educational establishments. Gymnastics is a part of children's daily activity in the kindergartens. Physical culture is a compulsory subject at schools and colleges. Professional sport is also paid much attention to in our republic. There are different sporting societies clubs and complexes.
We will study English and Russian sports. We have noticed a lot of common things and some differences between them.
Different sports and games are popular among students of both countries.
In Russia we have more opportunities to go in for winter sports than in Great Britain because winter is not as cold and snowy as in Russia. Sport is paid much attention either in Russia or in Great Britain.
Physical culture is a compulsory subject at schools in Great Britain and in Russia.
Sport helps people to be healthy, to stay in good shape, keeps them fit and makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily activities.
We hope, that new kinds of sports will appear in our school which help our pupils to be more healthy.